The National Association for Stock Car Racing Auto , or NASCAR (National Association of Series Car Racing ), is the leading agency that governs stock car racing in the United States where the stock car is the racing discipline. the most popular.
- 2 General
The origins of NASCAR are related to alcohol smuggling in the United States during the Prohibition era, in the 1930s. In order to more easily escape the police force, traffickers modify the engines of their cars to make them illegal. more swift. Rapidly, high-risk races between smugglers are organized: stock-car races (literally "production car" or "production car") are born.
Stock-car tests becoming popular, especially in rural southern states, many associations support the organization of races, now perfectly legal. In 1948, Bill France managed to federate these multiple associations under a single banner: NASCAR 1 . Other federations continue to run stock-car races, such as the United States Auto Club (USAC) , or nowadays the Automobile Racing Club of America (ARCA) , but failing to emerge from the shadow of the overpowered NASCAR.
The first championship under the aegis of NASCAR is organized in 1949: the Strictly Stock Division . As the name suggests, the idea of this championship is to compete against models directly from the series production. But, gradually, the regulations are amended, allowing cars to move away from the series. Today, if we still talk about " stock-car ", cars do not have much to do with the models of series. It would be more accurate to speak of "silhouette", since the cars are designed from a tubular chassis exclusively made for the race, covered with a bodywork profile approaching a series model.
In 1972, NASCAR made a major change in its organization by creating the Winston Cup (named after the tobacco firm Winston ) to make it its main championship (the Grand National Championship ). Organized in a more rational way than the Grand National , offering lucrative bonuses, the Winston Cup (now " Nextel Cup " in 2004, following a change of sponsor) allows NASCAR to gain popularity.
At the same time, in 1982, it was the year of the creation of the Busch Series (named " Xfinity Series " since 2015 2 ), becoming in a way the second division of NASCAR.
In 1993, a group of pilots created NASCAR-style pickup prototypes, the first demonstration being held at the 1994 Daytona 500. These retouched pick-ups proved very popular, bringing NASCAR to offer them an official series. . The first championship, in 1995, took the name of " SuperTruck Series ", then " Craftsman Truck Series " and, in 2009, following a change of sponsor, " Camping World Truck Series ".
In 2008, the Sprint Cup (formerly Nextel Cup , still after a change of sponsor) succeeds the first tests of Bill France .
Already more popular than the single-seaters races in the southern United States (its historic homelands), NASCAR became the king of motor sport throughout the United States in the mid-1990s, taking advantage in particular of the devastating split between Indy Racing League (IRL) and CART (Champ Car ).
The official NASCAR championship names are all named after their main sponsor.
The NASCAR Cup Series includes thirty-six rounds for the championship, thirty-four of which compete on an oval track. The length of the ovals ranges from 0.526 miles (0.85 km) for Martinsville, Virginia, to 2.660 miles (4.28 km) for Talladega, Alabama. The remaining two rounds take place on road circuits: Sonoma, California, and Watkins Glen, New York (which was once used in Formula 1).
The Xfinity Series has thirty-three rounds including, from 2007, three road circuits: Road America, Watkins Glen and Montreal (Quebec). In 2013, the Nationwide Series did not come to Montreal because of funding problems between the Canadian and Quebec governments.
The World Truck Series is a pick-up truck with twenty-two rounds, including one on the road at Canadian Tire Motorsport Park and a dirt track on the Eldora.
The Cup Series championship has almost one race every Sunday, between the inaugural Daytona 500 race in February and the last race of the season at the end of November. To this calendar are added two races, a qualifier for the Daytona 500 and the prestigious race All-Stars Challenge . A driver therefore makes a maximum of 38 out of 39 races.
The start is always carried out behind a pace car . This procedure makes it possible to avoid the fairly frequent pileup of races with a stopped start.
Each oval race is a marathon (most of it is 500 miles (804.67 miles), lasting up to four hours, at average speeds of about 150 mph (241 km / h) and The longest event, the Coca Cola 600 , is a 600 mi / km 2 race in Charlotte, North Carolina, with the majority of the races taking place on 400 or 500 miles, to go down to 263 mi km 2, in Martinsville (because of the imposed limit of 500 laps).
The ovals, generally very inclined (up to 33 degrees for the Talladega circuit) allow to reach high speeds and overtaking are much more frequent than on the road. On Superspeedway , the cars are usually bumper against bumper ( bumper to bumper ) and door to door ( side by side ), drivers can fight at three ( 3 wide ) or four front ( 4 wide ) and this, on several revolutions, at speeds up to 320 km / h without affecting the brake pedal thanks to the inclination and, therefore, the centripetal force.
On oval, the absence of an escape route means that any incident usually ends in the outer wall, immediately resulting in a yellow flag. During a yellow flag, a pace car , coming out of the pits, is positioned in front of the leader and slows down the pack. This allows the marshals to intervene and clean the track safely.
We sometimes see monster jerks involving twenty cars, called " big ones ". In case of complete obstruction of the track, the race may be interrupted by a red flag. All the pilots stop on the track, stay in their cockpit and no intervention can be made on the cars; the wreckage evacuated, the race is restarted, first of all by a yellow flag which authorizes the repairs, then, when the track is totally cleaned, the pace car returns to the stand and, the green flag brandished, the race is revived. This is reiterated as many times as necessary to achieve the distance originally planned, and the first driver completing the last lap in the lead logically wins the race. He usually greets the public with a generous " burn out " or " donut " (named after the famous round donut - turn on-site brakes front blocked, causing a cloud of smoke) and an extra low turn speed, before joining the " winner circle " (sometimes called " victory lane "). Indeed, unlike races in many countries where the top three are rewarded, the US races reward only the winner of the event, usually a trophy in the colors of the sponsor of the race; in Martinsville, for example, the winner wins a clock; for the Subway Fresh Fit 600 , the winner leaves with a sandwich of almost a meter long.
When it rains, oval track races are postponed or canceled. If the rain occurs during a race, it is stopped momentarily. If the conditions do not improve, the result is official if more than half of the distance has been covered; otherwise, the race is postponed. In NASCAR, this also applies to road circuits even if, since 2007, rain tires are available in case of bad weather. Napa Auto Parts 200 , in Montreal, in 2008, is the first NASCAR race to be played in the rain.
All races take place on an oval, except two road races. It should be noted that sometimes comes twice a year on the same oval, for example in Daytona. The ovals are classified in three categories:
- short track : small circuit, less than 1.6 kilometers (0.99 mi) long;
- speedway : intermediate circuit, 1.6 kilometers (0.99 mi) to 3.2 kilometers (1.99 mi) long;
- superspeedway : major circuit, at least 3.2 kilometers (1.99 mi) long.
We also distinguish circuits according to their form:
- classic ovals, zero-shaped, where turns go in pairs; thus turns 1 and 2 are almost identical, as well as turns 3 and 4;
- "D" -shaped ovals (most common), with the same characteristics as the zero-shaped ovals, plus one straight line longer than the other;
- triovals, with three turns, different from each other.
The last element of distinction is the degree of banking and straight lines, which can vary from zero to more than 30 degrees of inclination.
NASCAR also travels on the road circuits of Watkins Glen and Sonoma.
NASCAR has changed several points system. The old systems were often set up to benefit the winners in important events.
- 1949 to 1951: points system giving 10 points to the winner, 9 to the second, 8 to the third, all multiplied by 0.005 times the total purse of the race; for example, a $ 4,000 race pays 200 points to the first (10 x .00 x 4,000), 180 points to the second, and so on. ;
- 1952 to 1967: linear points system giving points to the top twenty-five: 25 to the winner, 24 to the second, 23 to the third, etc. ;
- 1968 to 1971: system taking into account the total distance of the event, yielding 50 points to the winner, 49 to the second, 48 to the third, etc. ; result doubled for races of 250 to 399 miles and by three for races of 400 miles and more; if the track is 249 miles or less, the result remains unchanged;
- 1972 and 1973: the schedule is shortened to keep the races longer and more important at the expense of smaller events; the points system is again reworked, with more complexity: each competitor starts with 100 points plus a number of points depending on the length of the track: for each lap completed less than 1 mile : 0.25 point; 1 mile: 0.50 point; in Darlington (the only 1.3-mile strip), 0.70 points; 1.5 mile: 0.75 point; 2 miles (Michigan): 1 point; 2.5 miles or more: 1.25 points.
- 1974: system to simplify the counting of points: the total of the accumulated premiums during the season is multiplied by the number of races in which the pilot participated, all divided by 1 000; for example, Richard Petty wins the championship with 5,038 points, compared to 4,470 for Cale Yarborough, his closest competitor;
- 1975: System that lasts until 2010, recommended by Bob Latford, Lowe's Motor Speedway PR man: the win is 175 points, then 180 in 2004 and 185 in 2007; 5 points are given for any driver who has completed at least one lap, and 10 points for the one who has done the most;
- 2011: with 43 competitors, the winner gets 43 points plus three bonus points for the win, 42 points for second, 41 points for the third and so on until the 43 th that receives only a single point; each driver who has completed at least one lap has an extra point and, whoever has done the most, another additional point 3 ;
- 2016: Rehabilitation as number of competitors: 40 competitors; the winner gets 40 points plus 3 bonus points for the win, 39 for the second to 40th receives one point; 1 point is given for any driver who has completed at least one lap, and 1 additional point for the one who has done the most.
- 2017: On January 23, 2017, at a press conference, NASCAR announces that the race format and the points system have been modified 4 .
- first and second segments: about 1⁄4 of the total distance (same number of turns).
- third segment: about half of the total distance.
- The first ten drivers at the end of the first two segments receive points counting for the championship (10 for the first, 9 for the second … and 1 for the tenth). The winners of each segment win 1 bonus point counting for the playoffs .
- The final winner of the race (thus arriving first at the end of the third part) will receive 40 points. The following drivers will receive points on a sliding scale ranging from 35 points for 2nd to 2 points for the 35th and 1 point for the drivers classified 36th to 40th.
- The final winner of the race also wins 5 playoff points. Points earned in the various segments are cumulative.
The chase ("chase", "chase") is NASCAR's official name for the top sixteen ranked drivers (previously: the top ten, then the top 12) at the end of three quarters of the season. NASCAR introduces this new system for the 2004 championship to increase the audience of its races. Some think it's more like the title of Matt Kenseth, won with only one win.
"The hunt" is to change the ranking at a few races of the end of the season for the top drivers to level the gaps; the title is awarded on the last races of the season between the selected drivers.
From 2004 to 2006, the top ten of the championship take part in the title race in the last ten races. At ten races of the end, the leader is thus awarded a total of 5,050 points, the others having five points less per position (the second at 5,045, the third 5,040, etc.). These last ten races serve to decide between these ten pilots (all the pilots participate, the points are then given on the same principle as during the regular season).
In 2007, the points system is revised: "hunting" is open to the first twelve of the regular season; they then have 5,000 plus 10 points per win. The idea is to give greater importance to victory than before.
The effectiveness of the formula is not unanimous: some say that it can prevent returns at the end of the season, like that of Alan Kulwicki in 1992; others say that it allows some drivers to win titles they would not have won with the old system, like Kurt Busch in 2004.
In 2011, the chase knows an evolution: the top ten in the championship participate in the title race and two drivers are drafted to the greatest number of victories, provided they finish in the top twenty overall. The chase points system is also revised: each qualified rider starts with 2,000 points and three additional points per win earned during the regular season.
In 2014, NASCAR changes the format of the chase : sixteen pilots participate. To qualify, you must have tried to qualify for all races, have a victory and be in the Top-30 with the points. If fewer than sixteen drivers win races, the available places are occupied by the drivers with the most points without a win; if more than sixteen drivers win a race, only the first sixteen are selected; if the leader of the regular season has no win, he is still eligible. However, the major difference lies in the introduction of a system of elimination: all three races, the last four are eliminated according to the Challenger Round , the Contenter Round and the Eliminator Round , the penultimate race. Finally, in the last race, the last four drivers race for the title of Sprint Cup champion . A win during one of the rounds gives the winner access to the next stage.
In 2016, this chase system is introduced for the first time in Xfinity Series and Camping World Truck Series .
In 2017, NASCAR removes the chase and replace it with playoffs that are supposed to make the races more aggressive.
Among the most famous pilots:
- Lee Petty: father of the aforementioned Richard Petty, triple champion in 1955, 1958 and 1959;
- David Pearson: the greatest rival of Richard Petty, champion in 1966, 1968 and 1969 and winner of 105 races;
- Dale Earnhardt: seven-time champion in 1980, 1986, 1987, 1990, 1991, 1993 and 1994; he kills himself in the last corner of the Daytona 500 in 2001; Dale Earnhardt Jr., his son, is today one of the most popular pilots, largely thanks to his father's aura;
- Darrell Waltrip: triple champion in 1981, 1982 and 1985;
- Jimmie Johnson: first driver in history to achieve five consecutive titles in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010; he joins Richard Petty
A Cup Series car with a tubular frame weighs a minimum of 1,542 kg for 850 horses; the engine is a 358 following OHV V8 (cubic inches or cubic inches) be 5866 cm 3, equipped with a Borg-Warner gearbox four reports or for road courses, box semi-automatic Jericho with controlled clutch. Nationwide Series cars develop 600 horsepower.
In 2007, the CoT (" Car of Tomorrow ", "car of tomorrow") made its appearance. It is much safer and cheaper to allow the teams easier access to the championship. Used for a few races at first, this car was introduced in 2008, due to the death of Dale Earnhardt, in the last corner of the last round of the 2001 Daytona 500 .
There are four manufacturers in the running: Chevrolet, Ford, Dodge and Toyota. Toyota, already involved in the Truck Series , arrives in 2007 in NASCAR Cup Series and wins its first race in 2008, SprintCup with, driving, Kyle Busch, Joe Gibbs Racing. For the 2013 NASCAR Cup Series , the manufacturer Dodge is retiring, reducing the number of manufacturers to three who introduce new models.
NASCAR is, in its early days, a very virile and conservative discipline, a typical post-war Southeast US mentality. Nevertheless, some women, African Americans and even foreigners have participated since its inception. This spirit is now dismissed by NASCAR which has blurred its past and tries to expand its audience to the maximum. A race in Mexico and one in Canada have been added to the Nationwide Series calendar. The events are mainly in the United States for a logistics issue because few circuits meet NASCAR criteria and transport teams to another country would be too expensive, but most importantly, the public is concentrated in North America.
Two races are held in Japan, at Suzuka (in 1997 and 1998), and two in England at Silverstone and Brands Hatch (in 1978).
Every weekend, NASCAR races are held throughout the United States; Most of the time, they are regional events that fill the stands, proof of their great popularity. This is a nearly mandatory step and almost all NASCAR pilots have gone through the regional level.
This type of motor racing is quite unfamiliar to Europeans, more used to so-called "road" circuits. We can do up to 500 laps on an oval circuit of just 800 meters, with cars well over the ton. Beyond this aspect, the frequent use of yellow flags and the safety car is just as unusual. As another example of the gap between NASCAR culture and that of European races include the fact that the defending champion does not wear No. 1; the numbers belong to the stables, so the number becomes a kind of identifier of a particular driver.
In 2008, the main championship organized by NASCAR is the NASCAR Cup Series . Before 1972, this championship was called Grand National , before changing its name according to sponsoring, Winston Cup from 1972 to 2003, Nextel Cup from 2004 to 2007, Sprint Cup Series from 2008 to 2016 and since 2017 Monster Energy Cup Series .
First division [edit | change the code]Champion Champion Season
constructor Number of
Gain races Grand National 1949 Red Byron Oldsmobile 8 $ 5,800 1950 Bill Rexford Oldsmobile 19 $ 6,175 1951 Herb Thomas Oldsmobile 41 $ 18,200 1952 Tim Flock Hudson 34 $ 20,210 1953 Herb Thomas (2) Hudson 37 $ 27,300 1954 Lee Petty Hudson (3) 37 $ 26,706 1955 Tim Flock (2) Chrysler 45 $ 33,750 1956 Buck Baker Chrysler (2) 56 $ 29,790 1957 Buck Baker (2) Ford 53 $ 24,712 1958 Lee Petty (2) Chevrolet 51 $ 20,600 1959 Lee Petty (3) Chevrolet 44 $ 45,570 1960 Rex White Ford 44 $ 45,262 1961 Ned Jarrett Pontiac 52 $ 27,285 1962 Joe Weatherly Pontiac 53 $ 56,110 1963 Joe Weatherly (2) Ford 55 $ 58,110 1964 Richard Petty Ford 62 $ 98,810 1965 Ned Jarrett (2) Ford 55 $ 77,966 1966 David Pearson (2) Dodge 49 $ 59,205 1967 Richard Petty Plymouth 49 $ 130,275 1968 David Pearson Ford 49 $ 118,842 1969 David Pearson (3) Ford 54 $ 183,700 1970 Bobby Isaac Plymouth (2) 48 $ 121,470 1971 Richard Petty Chevrolet 48 $ 309,225 Winston Cup 1972 Richard Petty Chevrolet 31 $ 227,015 1973 Benny Parsons Mercury 28 $ 114,345 1974 Richard Petty Chevrolet 30 $ 299,175 1975 Richard Petty Dodge (2) 30 $ 378,865 1976 Cale Yarborough Chevrolet 30 $ 387,173 1977 Cale Yarborough (2) Chevrolet 30 $ 387,173 1978 Cale Yarborough (3) Oldsmobile (4) 30 $ 530,751 1979 Richard Petty (7) Chevrolet 31 $ 588,926 1980 Dale Earnhardt Chevrolet 31 $ 588,926 nineteen eighty one Darrell Waltrip Buick 31 $ 588,926 1982 Darrell Waltrip (2) Buick 30 $ 873,118 1983 Bobby Allison Chevrolet 30 $ 828,355 1984 Terry Labonte Chevrolet 30 $ 713,010 1985 Darrell Waltrip (3) Ford
Chevrolet 28 $ 1,318,735 1986 Dale Earnhardt (2) Chevrolet 29 $ 1,783,880 1987 Dale Earnhardt (3) Chevrolet 29 $ 2,099,243 1988 Bill Elliott Ford 29 $ 1,574,639 1989 Rusty Wallace Pontiac (3) 29 $ 2,247,950 1990 Dale Earnhardt (4) Chevrolet 29 $ 3,083,056 1991 Dale Earnhardt (5) Chevrolet 29 $ 2,396,685 1992 Alan Kulwicki Ford 29 $ 2,322,561 1993 Dale Earnhardt (6) Chevrolet 30 $ 3,353,789 1994 Dale Earnhardt (7) Ford 31 $ 3,400,733 1995 Jeff Gordon Chevrolet 31 $ 2,430,480 1996 Terry Labonte (2) Chevrolet 31 $ 4,030,648 1997 Jeff Gordon (2) Ford 32 $ 4,201,227 1998 Jeff Gordon (3) Chevrolet 33 $ 6,175,867 1999 Dale Jarrett Ford 34 $ 3,608,829 2000 Bobby Labonte Ford 34 $ 4,041,750 2001 Jeff Gordon (4) Chevrolet 36 $ 6,649,080 2002 Tony Stewart Ford (15) 36 $ 4,695,150 2003 Matt Kenseth Chevrolet 36 $ 4,038,120 Nextel Cup 2004 Kurt Busch Chevrolet 36 $ 4,200,330 2005 Tony Stewart (2) Chevrolet 36 $ 6,987,535 2006 Jimmie Johnson Chevrolet 36 $ 8,909,143 2007 Jimmie Johnson (2) Chevrolet 36 $ 7,646,420 Sprint Cup Series 2008 Jimmie Johnson (3) Chevrolet 36 $ 7,225,850 2009 Jimmie Johnson (4) Chevrolet 36 $ 7,339,630 2010 Jimmie Johnson (5) Chevrolet 36 $ 7,264,780 2011 Tony Stewart (3) Chevrolet 36 $ 6,500,580 2012 Brad Keselowski Dodge 36 $ 6,227,850 2013 Jimmie Johnson (6) Chevrolet 36 $ 8,986,750 2014 Kevin Harvick Chevrolet 36 $ 7,078,477 2015 Kyle Busch Toyota 36 $ 4,887,217 2016 Jimmie Johnson (7) Chevrolet 36 ? $ Monster Energy Cup Series 2017 Martin Truex Jr. Toyota 36 ? $
Second division change the code]Champion Champion Champion Season
constructor Number of
racing Busch Series 1982 Jack Ingram (en) Pontiac 29 1983 Sam Ard (en) Oldsmobile 35 1984 Sam Ard (2) Pontiac 29 1985 Jack Ingram (2) Pontiac 27 1986 Larry Pearson Pontiac (4) 31 1987 Larry Pearson (2) Chevrolet 27 1988 Tommy Ellis Buick 30 1989 Rob Moroso (en) Buick 29 1990 Chuck Bown Buick 31 1991 Bobby Labonte (2) Oldsmobile 31 1992 Joe Nemechek Chevrolet 31 1993 Steve Grissom (en) Chevrolet 28 1994 David Green (en) Chevrolet 28 1995 Johnny Benson Jr. Ford 26 1996 Randy LaJoie Chevrolet 26 1997 Randy LaJoie (2) Chevrolet 30 1998 Dale Earnhardt Jr. Chevrolet 31 1999 Dale Earnhardt Jr. Chevrolet 32 2000 Jeff Green Chevrolet 32 2001 Kevin Harvick (2) Chevrolet 33 2002 Greg Biffle Ford 34 2003 Brian Vickers Chevrolet 34 2004 Martin Truex Jr. Chevrolet 34 2005 Martin Truex Jr. (2) Chevrolet 35 2006 Kevin Harvick (3) Chevrolet 35 2007 Carl Edwards Chevrolet 35 2008 Clint Bowyer Toyota 35 Nationwide Series 2009 Kyle Busch (2) Toyota 35 2010 Brad Keselowski (2) Toyota (3) 35 2011 Ricky Stenhouse Jr. Ford 34 2012 Ricky Stenhouse Jr. (2) Ford 34 2013 Austin Dillon Chevrolet 34 2014 Chase Elliott Chevrolet (15) 33 Xfinity Series 2015 Chris Buescher Ford (5) 33 2016 Daniel Suárez Toyota 33 2017 William Byron Chevrolet 33
Third division change the code]Champion Champion Season
constructor Number of
racing SuperTruck Series presented by Craftsman 1995 Mike Skinner Chevrolet 20 Craftsman Truck Series 1996 Ron Hornaday Jr. Chevrolet 24 1997 Jack Sprague (en) Chevrolet 26 1998 Ron Hornaday Jr. (2) Chevrolet 27 1999 Jack Sprague (2) Ford 25 2000 Greg Biffle (2) Ford (2) 24 2001 Jack Sprague (3) Dodge 24 2002 Mike Bliss Chevrolet 22 2003 Travis Kvapil Dodge 25 2004 Bobby Hamilton (en) Dodge (3) 25 2005 Ted Musgrave (en) Chevrolet 25 2006 Todd Bodine (en) Toyota 25 2007 Ron Hornaday Jr. (3) Toyota 25 2008 Johnny Benson Jr. (2) Toyota 25 Camping World Truck Series 2009 Ron Hornaday Jr. (4) Toyota 25 2010 Todd Bodine (2) Toyota 25 2011 Austin Dillon (2) Chevrolet 25 2012 James Buescher (en) Chevrolet (8) 22 2013 Matt Crafton Toyota 22 2014 Matt Crafton (2) Toyota 22 2015 Erik Jones Toyota (8) 23 2016 Johnny Sauter Toyota 23 2017 Christopher Bell (en) Toyota 23
- 2010 - Poor and Stupid , season 14, episode 203 of South Park , caricature NASCAR claiming that there are only "poor and stupid" people to appreciate the races;
- Body types
- Driving assistance
- Driving school
- Traffic Laws
- Driver's license
- Grand Tourism
- Single seater
- Indy Car
- Car rally
- Cleaning product
- Disc brake
- Drum brake
- Parking brake
- Engine brake
- Master cylinder
- Brake pad
- Hybrid electric car
- Combustion engine
- Electric car
- Flex fuel vehicle
- First aid
- Automotive lighting
- Hazard lights
- Emergency services
- Technical control
- Assistance with driving vehicles
- ABS (anti-lock braking system)
- Emergency Brake Assist
- Parking assistance
- Reversing camera
- Automatic tire pressure control
- Electronic trajectory corrector (ESP)
- Automatic emergency braking
- Board computer
- Reversing Radar
- Electronic brake distribution
- Automatic parking
- Automatic shutdown and restart of the engine
- Reviews against SUVs and 4x4s
- Clean vehicle
- Coefficient of drag
- Ground effect